Mitigation Of Ocean Acidification Through Enhanced Olvine Weathering

Chair: Jessica Ericson

Francesc Montserrat1,3, Phil Renforth2, Martine Leermakers3, Jens Hartmann4 and Filip Meysman1,3

1 Royal Netherland Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), 4401NT, Yerseke, The Netherlands

2 Cardiff University, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff, CF10 3AT, United Kingdom

3 Free University of Brussels, Pleinlaan 2, 1050, Brussels, Belgium

4 University of Hamburg, Bundesstraße 55, 20146, Hamburg, Germany

 

Background:

To mitigate the effects of ocean acidification and enhance oceanic CO2 uptake, a climate intervention or -engineering approach has been proposed as a pro-active conservation strategy. Enhanced Weathering of Olivine targets the enhancement of the natural process of silicate weathering in order to locally manage ocean chemistry. The core concept consists of rapidly weathering silicate mineral olivine, distributed in water bodies, on beaches and along coasts. However, the idea is highly conceptual and both mechanistic understanding of the involved processes and empirical evidence are lacking.

Methods:

In a series of mesocosm experiments, the proxies, processes and effects of olivine weathering in seawater have been investigated. Sand-grade olivine has been experimentally subjected to model conditions of coastal marine environments (water movement, differing seawater composition, macrofaunal bioturbation). During these experiments, the dissolution reaction products in the overlying water were measured  and the solid mineral phase later analysed.

Findings:

The experiments have shown that olivine dissolution increases the alkalinity in seawater, and hence locally alleviate or even counteract acidification effects. Various processes like seawater composition, metabolic dissolution and bioturbation strongly affect the dissolution rate of olivine in coastal settings.

Conclusions:

Olivine dissolution in seawater can be best measured by monitoring the release of Nickel. Marine olivine dissolution increases the alkalinity and hence the uptake of atmospheric CO2, but this process is constrained by Magnesium present in seawater. Bioturbation activity strongly enhances olivine dissolution in both experimental and natural sediments. As such, Enhanced Weathering of Olivine appears a useful mitigation tool against Ocean Acidification.

87. An Early Stage of Biological Impact Investigation in Marine Organisms of Thailand due to reducing pH in Seawater using Radiotracer Techniques

Yutthana Tumnoi

Office of Atoms for Peace, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900, Thailand

Thailand has been widely known as one of the world leading seafood exporters, generating substantial incomes for local fishermen and also boosts up the country’s economy for decades. In addition, Thai people strongly rely on seafood as a protein source. Until recently, increasing CO2 emission rates into the atmosphere, which eventually precipitate into ocean, have caused pH in seawater to be decreased. This reducing pH becomes a serious threat to coastal and marine organisms leading to devastation of fragile ecosystem and a decline of economy growth. A situation seems to be worse as the seawater pH continues to reduce. In order to avoid undesirable losses and to remediate damaged ecosystems effective protective and mitigation measures are urgently required. Although the seawater temperature monitoring program is being carried out in Thailand, data generated is not sufficient to create appropriate action to combat consequences of ocean acidification. Therefore, biological impacts resulting from ocean acidification on the Thai marine biota, especially commercially important and calcifying species, need to be investigated to provide additional scientific data for making the sustainable environmental management policy. The National Radioecology Laboratory (NREL) was then established in 2015 with financial support from the Royal Thai Government and technical advices from the IAEA’s Environment Laboratories in Monaco. NREL will provide scientists and researchers both in Thailand and in the region with an opportunity to apply powerful and sensitive isotopic and nuclear techniques including the radiotracer-based Ca-45 technique to examine feasible effects of increased seawater acidity on species calcification rate. Generated information from NREL will be used in conjunction with other monitored environmental parameters such as temperature and pH in seawater to improve the national environmental management plan to protect our ecosystem and economy from being directly and indirectly affected by decreasing ocean pH levels.

86. Building capacities and bridging gaps on Ocean Acidification research for equatorial developing countries: Ecuadorian experience

Francisco Navarrete-Mier (1,a), Patricia Castillo-Briceño (1,b)

1 Equatorial Biome & Ocean Acidification – EBiOAc, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Laica Eloy Alfaro de Manabí – ULEAM. Manta, Ecuador.
a f.navarretemier@gmail.com
b pat.castillo.briceno@gmail.com

Background
Equatorial populations of marine species are predicted to be among the most impacted by global warming/Ocean Acidification (OA) because their local environments are very stable, so they are adapted to a narrow range of parameters. Although OA research is growing worldwide, the most of the research is located in high-latitude areas (polar and temperate areas). Therefore, there is a strong lack of information regarding equatorial areas (which are in general developing countries).

Methods
We started the project EBiOAc with the aim to establish a permanent program of research, education and divulgation on OA and related topics. We work out this aim through conferences, meetings, seminars and workshops to involve several sectors of society including: universities, public research centres, pertinent authorities, aquaculture organizations, general society and decision makers. We are also developing projects to evaluate the impact of OA on equatorial marine biota.

Findings
In general there is a very open reception to attend and discuss about OA and their social, economic and biological impacts, especially from productive and conservationist sectors. Although we still found some cases of academics that were not aware of the subject and even a few that denies OA existence. Moreover governmental dependencies are open to discuss and organize meetings, especially before COP21.

Conclusions
Climate Change receive great attention within the general society and generates publicity from governmental entities . Ocean Acidification, as part of the processes of Climate Change attracts attention and the public concern. However between the media coverage and the financial commitment for funding research there is big gap that delays the development of projects to implement mitigation actions. We propose as strategy: to work with productive sectors, to research on emblematic species and to rise awareness on the wide public, thus to reach the effective support from decision and policy makers.

85. The Future of an Ecosystem Engineer: Effects of Ocean Acidification and Rising Temperatures in Crassostrea gigas Juveniles

Catarina Santos (1,2), Inês Rosa (1), Jorge Machado (2,3), Mariana Hinzmann (2,3), Marta Pimentel (1), Sofia Francisco (1), Rui Rosa (1)*

1 MARE – Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Laboratório Marítimo da Guia, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Cascais, 2750-374, Portugal
2 ICBAS‐UP– Abel Salazar Biomedical Sciences Institute, University of Porto, Porto, 4050-313, Portugal
3 CIIMAR– Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Porto,
4050-123, Portugal

Background
Often described as an “ecosystem engineer”, the Pacific cupped oyster (Crassostrea gigas) has become the dominant farmed oyster. With high growth rate and great tolerance to environmental variations this it is able to out-compete indigenous species. Rising temperatures and ocean acidification pose serious challenges for sessile calcifiers, such as oysters, particularly during their early-life. As both the disruption and thrive of this species has the potential to induce cascading effects over the entire ecosystems while triggering important economic consequences, research is needed to improve stock management and mitigations politics.

Methods
Here we present a multidisciplinary assessment of the overall fitness of C. gigas juveniles in face of climate change related stressors. We evaluate the effects of a 3 month exposure to ocean warming (∆ 4ºC) and high pCO2, with concomitant acidification (Δ 0.5 pH units), on stress biomarkers [(i) Heat Shock Response and (ii) Lipid peroxidation], metabolic potential [(iii) Citrate synthase and (iv) Lactate dehydrogenase activity], haematological parameters [(v) total haemocyte count, (vi) viability and (vii) ratio of morphotypes] and calcification processes [(viii) shell microstructure].

Findings
The exposure to the experimental conditions triggered the activation of a stress response, although not sufficient to prevent cellular damage, particularly under hypercapnia. Our results also denote a shift from aerobic towards anaerobic metabolism. Haematological parameters were likewise affected by the experimental conditions, particularly acidification. Additionally, over time, the shell ultrastructure suffered major alternations as a consequence of the synergistic action of ocean warming and acidification.

Conclusions
Our results suggests that in a future scenario, with warmer temperatures and high pCO2 levels, the overall fitness of juvenile Pacific oyters may indeed be undermined. This study represents a comprehensive effort to increase the knowledge about the impacts of global change on this economically profitable and potentially invasive species.

84. CARIM (Coastal Acidification: Rate, Impacts & Management): An integrated New Zealand project

Law C.S. (1,2)*, Cummings V.J. (1), Currie, K.I (3), Zeldis J.R. (4), Lamare M.D. (5), Ragg N.L.C. (6), Sewell M.A. (7), and the CARIM Team (1-7)

1 National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Ltd, Greta Point, Kilbirnie, Wellington, 6002, New Zealand
2 Department of Chemistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
3 NIWA, Union Street, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
4 NIWA, 10 Kyle Street, Riccarton, Christchurch 8011, New Zealand
5 Department of Marine Science, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
6 The Cawthron Institute, 98 Halifax Street East, Nelson 7010, New Zealand
7 School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand

There is increasing concern regarding the potential impacts of acidification on New Zealand coastal ecosystems and the economic, recreational and cultural services they provide. The CARIM project is a new 4-year multi-disciplinary integrated project that aims to establish the sources, rate and variability of pH change at nationally important coastal locations, the impacts of acidification on both ecosystems and iconic species, and the potential of different approaches for managing these impacts. The research programme will determine the impacts of lower pH on primary production and substrate availability for larval settlement, the sensitivity of different life history stages of Greenshell Mussel, NZ Blackfoot Abalone and Snapper, and the potential for shellfish to acclimate and adapt to lower pH. The project will benefit from the broad genetic range of pedigreed mussels and abalone in commercial selective breeding programmes, to examine the genetic basis for resilience. Management tools will include the development of mass balance and hydrodynamic models that incorporate different sources of coastal acidification (terrestrial, oceanic, atmospheric), seasonal carbonate maps, and population forecast models for shellfish. Outreach is an important component of the project, and a variety of fora and media will be used to disseminate findings to Maori partners, stakeholders and communities to enhance the protection and management of New Zealand coastal ecosystems.

83. Perception of small-scale fishers on ocean acidification impacts: A case study of small-scale fisheries communities at Ko Chang, Thailand

Thamasak Yeemin*, Makamas Sutthacheep, Wichin Suebpala, Sittiporn Pengsakun

Marine Biodiversity Research Group, Faculty of Science, Ramkhamhaeng University, Bangkok, Thailand

Background
Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide, mainly generated from human activities, causes a reduction in pH of seawater known as ‘ocean acidification’ which is currently a growing concern among scientists. The 5th assessment report of the IPCC reported with medium to high confidence that ocean acidification might be risky to marine life and ecosystems especially the primary production that relates to fisheries resources. However, public perceptions on the impacts of ocean acidification on small-scale fisheries sector are still questionable.

Methods
In this study, public perception of ocean acidification and its impacts on their livelihoods were investigated using focus group discussion in four fishing communities at Ko Chang, Thailand.

Findings
The fishing households were mostly small-scale. The fishing is usually operated within 3 nautical miles from the shores using simple fishing gears and small fishing boats, while some of these areas are designed as marine national parks where any fishing activity is legally prohibited. The results showed that most fishers had heard the concerns of global climate change through media; they also agreed that the global climate change was resulted from human activities. However, only a few fishers knew the term ‘ocean acidification’ but they did not clearly know about the impacts of ocean acidification on fisheries resources and their livelihoods. Interestingly, all of them mentioned that ocean acidification or even the global climate change could generate very little impact on fisheries resources compared with those impacts caused by pollution and destructive fishing practices that are still happening in this area.

Conclusions
This study reflects the general perception of small-scale fishers on ocean acidification impacts. Relevant agencies should pay more attention on this finding and the proper adaptive strategies should be developed for enhancing their resilience to cope with those impacts and to sustain their livelihoods.

82. Perspective Sanitary Control for Seafood Safety under Predicted Changes in Climate with Special Focus on Korea

Dong-Suck Chang (1)*, Sung Gak Hong (2), Hongsik Yu (3)

1 The National Academy of Sciences, Seoul, 06579, ROK
2 The National Academy of Sciences, Seoul, 06579, ROK
3 West Sea Fisheries Research Institute, NFRDI, Incheon, 22383, ROK

Background
Ocean warming and climate change will be the possible factors which can impact on food contamination and foodborne diseases. And the comprehensive strategies are required in consideration of changes in the nature and occurrence of food safety hazards which are being provoked by climate change and its variability.

Methods
Long term data from the sanitary survey and monitoring for various hazardous elements in seafood and its surrounding marine environment for several decades were analysed to evaluate the effect of climatic factors on various food safety risks to suggest their counter measures and supplementary element for the national level safety control strategy in Korea.

Findings
Level of pathogenic bacteria such as Vibrio vulnificus and occurrence of marine biotoxin in seafood are easily affected by climate changes and seafood safety especially for raw consumption is greatly relevant to these alterations in Korea. The period of PSP toxins occurrence extended from 15 weeks to 31 weeks in the south coast of Korea and the affected area has also expanded since 2000. Vibrio vulnificus was also affected by these changes in infections ratio and period. In addition the various changes may interact with other stressor factors to impact on food hazard elements.

Conclusions
The issue of vulnerability of seafood to climate change is considered at national level but the effective strategy is not well established due to the limited scientific data availability and collaboration in Korea. Country should respond promptly to requirements to solve the inter-related issues, which includes updating good hygiene practice guidance and monitoring and surveillance programmes to address emerging hazards arising from climate change, collaboration for the global approach to epidemiological surveillance and risk assessment, strengthened communication with the public, investment in scientific and technical capacities and sharing of data coming out of monitoring and surveillance.

81. “With these actions you can improve the world”: Empowering students with innovative learning resources for climate change and OA education

Jason Hodin (1), Geraldine Fauville (2), Pamela Miller (3), David Epel (3), Roger Säljö (2) and Sam Dupont (4)*

1 Friday Harbor Labs, University of Washington, Friday Harbor, WA USA
2 Department of Education, Communication and Learning, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden
3 Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, CA USA
4 Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden

The I2SEA project (Inquiry to Student Environmental Action at i2sea.stanford.edu) is a collaboration between the University of Gothenburg and Stanford University, promoting climate and ocean literacy in young people. We do so by producing and disseminating a learning resources toolbox including free-to-use, quality hands-on and computer-based learning resources that: inform about climate change and ocean acidification; provide platforms for students to discuss the issues and possible solutions with classmates, experts and peers worldwide; and support personal, school-wide and community actions that put their envisioned solutions into practice.
The toolbox includes:
*two virtual laboratories on ocean acidification, in which students learn about the problem, design and run experiments, gather realistic data, analyse it and discuss it with classmates;
*an interactive presentation (with additional ones planned) from project co-PI and OA expert Sam Dupont expands on the virtual labs to consider broader biological, cultural and economic implications of OA and climate change;
*our international student carbon footprint calculator, extensively documented and focused on aspects of a students’ lifestyle that she has control over;
*our communication platform, where students engage in conversations with their peers worldwide tp envision solutions to global environmental challenges.
In our presentation, we will introduce our tools for attendees and discuss plans for upgraded versions and additional tools to be produced in the coming years. We encourage attendees to share our website with classrooms around the world.

Offshore Carbon Capture and Storage: Environmental Impact Assessment, Monitoring and Research Synergies with OA

Chair: Zoë Hilton

Jerry Blackford(1), Gennadi Lessin(1), Jonathon M. Bull(2), Henrik Stahl(3)

1 Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, Plymouth, UK
2 University of Southampton, NOC, Southampton, UK
3 Zayed University, Dubai, UAE.

Background
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a key climate and OA mitigation option when coupled with fossil or biomass fuels and some industrial processes. Globally, considerable storage capacity lies offshore in geological formations below societally important coastal seas. CCS regulations require environmental impact assessments for CO2 leakage and effective monitoring for detection or assurance. Thus impact assessment is a high CO2 problem, but in contrast to OA, perturbations are spatially and temporally limited, primarily driven by organism stress responses and resilience rather than adaption and migration. Monitoring requires a detailed understanding of near bed carbonate chemistry dynamics and instrumentation capable of surveying large areas efficiently.

Methods
This talk will detail the linkages between OA research and R&D for CCS, in particular based on a sub-seafloor CO2 controlled release experiment coupled with local and regional modelling of carbonate chemistry, biological response and leakage dispersal.

Findings
For a moderate leak, impact is minimal, spatially restricted and recovery rapid, however carbonate dissolution in the sediments coupled with complex physical flow patterns result in significant patchiness. Modelling of a range of leak scenarios show a log-linear relation between leak rate and impacted area with ~two orders of magnitude variability, depending on hydrodynamic conditions and leak morphology. Impact models illustrate the relationship between pH, exposure time and impact, driven by physiological and ecological processes. In the absence of comprehensive near bed carbonate observations, regional climate models have enabled the development of site specific strategies for monitoring based on AUVs and benthic landers.

Conclusions
For most envisioned leak scenarios, however unlikely, impacts will be restricted and not sufficient to merit concern, especially when compared to climate change and OA. We propose that regulatory driven CCS monitoring, including baseline characterisation and instrumentation development has much synergy with global initiatives to monitor OA.

Metamorphic and proteomic responses of fast-growing and slow-growing larval cohorts of a Pacific oyster to ocean acidification and warming

Chair: Jessica Ericson

Ko Wai Kuen Ginger (1), Dineshram Ramadoss (1), Havenhand Jon (2), Thiyagarajan V (1)*

1 The Swire Institute of Marine Science and School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR.
2 Department of Biological & Environmental Sciences, Tjärnö, University of Gothenburg, Sweden

Ocean acidification and warming have previously been shown to significantly affect the physiological performance of oyster larvae; however, those studies were mainly focus on the effect of fast growing cohort that represented less than 20% of the overall population as marine invertebrate larval development rate is known to be heterogeneous. Sweeping statements about the specie’s response to environmental changes would then be easily made. In this study, comparative larval physiology (metamorphic success) and molecular responses (iTRAQ protein analysis) of both fast and slow growing cohort of Pacific oyster larvae (Crassostrea gigas) to chronic environmental stresses of temperature (24 and 30°C) and pH (pH 8.1 and pH 7.4) are investigated in a >2-week laboratory study. Recruitment failure and stress-related proteins expression were observed only in slow growing larvae of Pacific oyster, suggesting that the effect of slow growing larvae is also important to be considered. This study therefore is important for understanding the mechanisms of both fast and slow growing larvae of Pacific oyster respond to changing environments and projecting the effects of global climate change on oyster aquaculture in China.