79. Between control and complexity: The potential for experimental ocean science in the Biosphere2 mesocosm

Julia Cole (1)

1 University of Arizona Geosciences and Biosphere 2, Tucson AZ, 85721

How do we make the leap from controlled experimental studies to understanding the real ocean’s response to changing conditions? Marine mesocosms may hold an answer. These are experimental environments that combine the control of laboratory experiments with some of the complexity of natural ecosystems. Mesocosms allow researchers to address critical questions in marine ecology that can bridge the gap between small-scale controlled experiments and field observations, and provide low-cost access to a marine environment with an intermediate degree of complexity and diversity.

The University of Arizona’s Biosphere 2 ocean is the largest marine mesocosm dedicated to research purposes. The Biosphere2 ocean, because of its size and complexity, overcomes some challenges of smaller systems, such as scale and biodiversity. Originally conceived as a coral reef, the B2 ocean contributed significantly to early work on ecosystem responses to ocean acidification. As this mesocosm undergoes significant infrastructural and systemic improvements in the near future, the B2 Ocean research group is soliciting users and collaborators to help re-envision and design this facility as a unique and important tool for marine investigations to take full advantage of its resources.

Mesocosm studies can facilitate research ranging from basic biology to multi-factorial ecosystem studies that involve observation, perturbation, validation, calibration, long-term studies and testing of new technologies. Other applications can involve quantitative scaling (e.g. from eDNA to ecosystems), contaminant fate and transport, larval growth and survival, and instrument testing and training. Because the Biosphere2 receives nearly 100,000 visitors yearly, B2 research also contributes to a substantial public and K-12 education program.

78. Data Management for an in situ Ocean Acidification Experiment

Headley, K.L. (1)*, Peltzer, E.T. (1), Herlien R.A. (1), O’Reilly, T.C. (1), Miller, M. (3), Fountain, T.R. (2), Edgington, D.R. (1), Tilak, S. (2), Kirkwood, W.J. (1), Barry, J.P. (1), Brewer, P.G. (1)

1 Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, CA, 935039, USA
2 California Institute of Telecommunications and Information Technology, UCSD
La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA
3 Cycronix, Laconia, NH, 03246, USA

Background
Questions regarding the use of laboratory studies of the effects on ocean acidification have led researchers towards conducting more integrative field studies. New techniques and methods are emerging to observe the systemic, long-term effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 on various ecosystems and habitats.

Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) has been developing a package of technology and expertise called xFOCE (exportable Free Ocean CO2 Enrichment). xFOCE aims to enable researchers to draw on existing technology, methods, and expertise to conduct cost-effective in situ ocean acidification experiments.

Because in situ experiments may be multidisciplinary, expensive, and complex, they may be conducted collaboratively to increase scientific productivity and reduce cost. Here we explore the use of open source software to monitor remote experiment sites, to reliably collect and distribute FOCE data, and enable collaboration.

Methods
In two MBARI FOCE implementations, low-cost hardware and open source software provide basic data acquisition and archiving functions. In collaboration with Calit2, we have used open source data streaming middleware components called Open Source DataTurbine, CloudTurbine and WebScan in different operational and science workflows. These enable users to view experiment data streams, including images, in near real time using a web browser from remote locations.

Findings
A local CloudTurbine server was configured using a PC. Data from the experiment site was mirrored to the CloudTurbine server, from which users could access it using WebScan or Dropbox. WebScan enables users to view image data and compose multi-variable time-series plots from CloudTurbine streams using a web browser.

Conclusions
Streaming data middleware enables the implementation of distributed observing systems. Open Source DataTurbine and CloudTurbine are easy to use stand-alone or to complement existing data collection infrastructure. The ability to review data remotely via web browser enables remote monitoring and is useful in collaborative and science workflows.

77. The Friends of GOA-ON Build OA Reporting Capacity in Under-served Areas

Mark J. Spalding (1)

1 The Ocean Foundation, Washington, DC, 20036, USA

Background
During the 2014 “Our Ocean” Conference hosted by the State Department, Secretary of State John Kerry pledged support for building the observing capabilities of the Global Ocean Acidification Observing Network (GOA-ON). During that conference, The Ocean Foundation accepted the honour to host the Friends of GOA-ON, a non-profit collaboration targeted at attracting funding in support of the GOA-ON’s mission to fulfil the scientific and policy needs for coordinated, worldwide information-gathering on ocean acidification and its ecological impacts.

Recently, NOAA Chief Scientist Richard Spinrad and his UK counterpart, Ian Boyd, in their Oct. 15, 2015 New York Times OpEd, “Our Deadened, Carbon-Soaked Seas”, recommended investing in new ocean sensing technologies, particularly those developed during the 2015 Wendy Schmidt Ocean Health XPRIZE competition, to provide the basis for robust forecasting in coastal communities lacking the capability for OA monitoring and reporting, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere.

Methods
To increase OA monitoring and reporting capacity in Africa, an area where there are huge information and data gaps, GOA-ON has began a pilot program in Mozambique to hold training workshops for local scientists to learn how to operate, deploy and maintain OA sensors as well as collect, manage, archive and upload OA data to global observing platforms.

Findings
A partnership between the U.S. State Department (via their Leveraging, Engaging, and Accelerating through Partnerships (LEAP) program), the public-private partnership ApHRICA, GOA-ON, and the XPRIZE Foundation, will provide resources to begin OA monitoring in Africa, enhance capacity-building workshops, facilitate connections to global monitoring efforts, and explore a business case for new ocean acidification sensor technologies.

Conclusions
This partnership seeks to achieve the Secretary’s goal to increase worldwide coverage of the GOA-ON and train monitors and managers to better understand the impacts of ocean acidification, especially in Africa, where there is very limited ocean acidification monitoring.

75. A low-cost spectrophotometric system for automated and high-frequency measurements of seawater pH

Hugh L. Doyle (1)* and Christina M. McGraw (2)

1 Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, 7005, Australia
2 School of Science and Technology, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, 2351, Australia

Background
Automated spectrophotometric procedures allow rapid and precise seawater pH measurements. However, such systems are time-consuming to build and typically quite expensive (ca. $20,000). Here, we present an inexpensive (ca $4,500) and fully automated spectrophotometric pH system.

Methods
This system integrates an Ocean Optics spectrometer with a custom flow cell. Automated fluid handling (including sampling and dye mixing) is controlled through a series of diaphragm pumps. By using small-volume flow cells and miniature pumps, analysis time and volume is kept to a minimum (<2 minutes and ~3 mL, respectively). An intuitive user interface was designed to simplify the measurement and minimise operator error.

Findings
To help ensure accurate measurements, instrument-specific calibrations are performed on each device using purified meta-cresol purple dye and following the procedures of Liu et al. (2011, Environ. Sci. Technol., doi: 10.1021/es200665d) over a range of temperatures and salinities. This calibration was further tested using seawater reference materials from the Dickson Laboratory at Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Finally, the system was assessed using at-sea measurements obtained during a hydrographic cruise in the Southern Ocean (Earth-Ocean-Biosphere Interactions, RV Investigator 2016).

Conclusions
The low cost, rugged construction, and reliability of this device makes it ideally suited for ocean acidification studies where accurate, high-frequency measurements are needed.

The Friends of GOA-ON Build OA Reporting Capacity in Underserved Areas

Chair: Libby Jewett

Mark J. Spalding (1)
1 The Ocean Foundation, Washington, DC, 20036, USA

Background
During the 2014 “Our Ocean” Conference hosted by the State Department, Secretary of State John Kerry pledged support for building the observing capabilities of the Global Ocean Acidification Observing Network (GOA-ON). During that conference, The Ocean Foundation accepted the honour to host the Friends of GOA-ON, a non-profit collaboration targeted at attracting funding in support of the GOA-ON’s mission to fulfil the scientific and policy needs for coordinated, worldwide information-gathering on ocean acidification and its ecological impacts.
Recently, NOAA Chief Scientist Richard Spinrad and his UK counterpart, Ian Boyd, in their Oct. 15, 2015 New York Times OpEd, “Our Deadened, Carbon-Soaked Seas”, recommended investing in new ocean sensing technologies, particularly those developed during the 2015 Wendy Schmidt Ocean Health XPRIZE competition, to provide the basis for robust forecasting in coastal communities lacking the capability for OA monitoring and reporting, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere.

Methods
To increase OA monitoring and reporting capacity in Africa, an area where there are huge information and data gaps, GOA-ON has began a pilot program in Mozambique to hold training workshops for local scientists to learn how to operate, deploy and maintain OA sensors as well as collect, manage, archive and upload OA data to global observing platforms.

Findings
A partnership between the U.S. State Department (via their Leveraging, Engaging, and Accelerating through Partnerships (LEAP) program), the public-private partnership ApHRICA, GOA-ON, and the XPRIZE Foundation, will provide resources to begin OA monitoring in Africa, enhance capacity-building workshops, facilitate connections to global monitoring efforts, and explore a business case for new ocean acidification sensor technologies.

Conclusions
This partnership seeks to achieve the Secretary’s goal to increase worldwide coverage of the GOA-ON and train monitors and managers to better understand the impacts of ocean acidification, especially in Africa, where there is very limited ocean acidification monitoring.

Disentangling ocean acidification organismal effects through an experimental system that allows automated and dynamic carbonate chemistry manipulations

Chair: Thomas Trull

Iria Gimenez (1)*, George G. Waldbusser (2), Burke Hales (3)

1 College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331, USA
2 College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331, USA
3 College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331, USA

Background
Ocean acidification (OA)-driven pCO2, pH, and saturation state changes are tightly coupled within oligotrophic open ocean regimes, but can decouple across regimes or within dynamic coastal and estuarine waters. Laboratory OA experiments relying on CO2 gas injection or addition of mineral acid result in covariance of these carbonate system variables distinct from natural settings where they may change simultaneously and independently. These approaches do not allow determination of the carbonate parameter driving sensitivity, and thus difficult mechanistic interpretation of physiological responses.

Methods
Building on previous batch-culture work, we developed a system that allows long-term experimental decoupling of carbonate parameters. The system independently manipulates alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) to and consists of two parts: 1) an analyzer that monitors source-water pCO2 and DIC in real time, 2) a dynamic feed-forward controller system that performs automated, precise acid and carbonate reagent additions through computer-controlled syringe pumps.

Findings
After overcoming several implementation challenges, we have been able to simultaneously manipulate water on three different experimental treatments to results less than 3% from respective DIC and alkalinity targets. Preliminary tests show that extremely sensitive embryos and young larvae develop and grow normally in water manipulated to mimic control chemistry, while harmful conditions resulted in poor larval success. We will present data from precision and accuracy tests and preliminary physiological data from experiments to evaluate saturation state and pH integrated effects over the entire mussel larval period.

Conclusions
We constructed an experimental system providing opportunity to run OA experiments over long timescales in a flow-through setting providing more consistent experimental conditions. This system allows better mechanistic understanding of physiological responses to OA through a clear separation of effects due to different carbonate parameters and can be used on multiple organisms, allowing greater understanding of OA responses in ocean-margin waters that show decoupling.

Continuous pCO2 time series from ocean networks Canada cabled observatories on the Northeast Pacific shelf-edge/upper slope and in the Sub-Tidal Arctic

Chair: Libby Jewett

S. Kim Juniper (1)*, Akash Sastri (1), Steven Mihaly (1), Jeremy Whitehead (2), Brent Else (2), Helmuth Thomas (3) and Lisa Miller (4)

1 Ocean Networks Canada, University of Victoria, Canada
2 Department of Geography, University of Calgary, Canada
3 Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada
4 Institute of Ocean Sciences, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Canada

Continuous monitoring platforms contribute to our understanding of ocean change by resolving variability that can be a defining component of long-term change and a confounding factor in its detection by occasional measurements. The reliability of pCO2 sensors technologies has progressed to the point where months-long field recordings from autonomous and cabled sensor platforms can be used to document seasonal and higher frequency variability in pCO2 and its relationship to oceanographic processes. We will present pCO2 time-series data from deployments on two Ocean Networks Canada cabled platforms: a bottom-moored, vertical profiler at the edge of the continental shelf off Vancouver Island, Canada, and a seafloor platform at subtidal depth in the Canadian Arctic at Cambridge Bay, Nunavut. Both platforms support Pro-Oceanus pCO2 sensors together with other oceanographic instruments, and streamed continuous data to a shore-based archive. The vertical profiler deployment yielded a 7-month time series of pCO2 and corresponding oceanographic sensor data from 5 vertical profiles per data, from 400m depth to surface waters, centered around local noon. Step-wise profiles during the downcast provided the most reliable pCO2 data, permitting the sensor to equilibrate to the broad range of pCO2 concentrations encountered over this depth interval. The Arctic sensor platform was deployed in August 2015 and has been recording increasing pCO2 concentrations since the formation of sea ice. We will review the major characteristics of these two time series and the performance of the sensors in relation to the operational conditions encountered in vertical profiling and continuous operation in subzero seawater. We will also review the under-ice performance of a pH sensor and a prototype optical CO2 sensor that are deployed on the same Arctic platform.

Continuous monitoring of seawater pH and pCO2 in a temperate estuary

Chair: Libby Jewett

John Runcie (1)

1 Aquation Pty Ltd, Umina Beach, NSW, 2257, AUSTRALIA

Background
Understanding the carbon chemistry of seawater is essential to ocean acidification research. The drivers of small-scale and short-term changes in nearshore carbon chemistry and their interactions are complex. Continuous measurements that identify fluctuating chemistry can help in the identification and characterisation of these drivers. Recent research efforts to continuously measure seawater carbon chemistry have focussed on pH determination using ISFET and spectrometric techniques. Here we present results of an alternate approach to pH measurement using fluorescence. In addition we also report pCO2 determinations using the same fluorescence-based technology.

Methods
Specially made artificial substrates respond to changes in pH and pCO2 by changes in the lifetimes of fluorescence decay. These changes are compared against the lifetimes of an invariant reference. Both pH and pCO2 measurements were made from a single device located in an estuary in NSW, with virtually simultaneous measurements made regularly for several weeks.

Findings
The fluorescence-based technique provided a useful time-series for both pH and pCO2 of surface waters in the estuary. Variations over the course of the day and night were subtle but could reasonably be distinguished from background variability. Drift due to photodegradation of the fluorophore was kept to a minimum by minimising exposure to ambient light. Seawater carbon chemistry composition was calculated using the measured parameters.

Conclusions
The fluorescence lifetimes-decay approach used here to measure both pH and pCO2 in situ provides sufficient information to calculate the carbon chemistry of ambient seawater. The simplicity of the technique is attractive and means it is less susceptible to mechanical failure. An additional potential advantage of this approach is an independence to external pressure, however this will be examined in detail in a separate future study.

An ocean acidification Monitoring Network for the Caribbean: A Collaboration of Nations

Chair: Thomas Trull

James C. Hendee (1)*, Derek Manzello (1), Adrienne Sutton (2)

1 Ocean Chemistry and Ecosystems Division, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Miami, FL USA 33149
2 NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Seattle, WA, 98115, USA and University of Washington, Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA

Background
Even though studies over the last two decades have demonstrated that reef-building corals are sensitive to changes in carbonate chemistry, ocean acidification research and monitoring in tropical coral ecosystems is lacking.

Methods
To address this need, researchers at the Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML), of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, in Miami, FL (USA), have devised and deployed in situ monitoring stations (Coral Reef Early Warning System, or CREWS) for purposes of determining long-term environmental changes at various coral reef habitats since 2000 and are now building off these efforts to address ocean acidification. The Caribbean Community Climate Change Center has recently entered into a collaboration with AOML to assist in the deployment and information management (including ecological forecasting) of CREWS stations at many countries throughout the Caribbean, through funding by the European Union. AOML has recently in turn collaborated with researchers from the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) to devise a new buoy that has the standard CREWS-type of monitoring elements plus ocean acidification monitoring instruments. These newly designed stations are slated for deployment at a minimum of six new countries over the next several years and will represent the beginning of a Caribbean-wide ocean acidification monitoring network to inform coral reef research and management communities seeking to understand the impacts of ocean acidification.

Findings
Ocean acidification monitoring requires sophisticated monitoring equipment and methods. Providing near real-time monitoring of ocean acidification provides researchers a unique look at witnessing diurnal and seasonal events in near real-time and provides them the feedback to witness and sample events as, or shortly after, they occur. The instrumental architecture and information system also provides meteorological data to help interpret the oceanographic events.

Conclusions
Implementation of a Caribbean-wide network provides a large regional look at the process of ocean acidification.

A multi-sensor system for the direct measurement of Ω, pH, and carbonate

Chair: Libby Jewett

Christina M. McGraw (1), Wayne D.N. Dillon (1), Hugh L. Doyle (2), Peter W. Dillingham (1), Peter G. Lye (1), Philip W. Boyd (2), Catriona L. Hurd (2)

1 School of Science and Technology, University of New England, Armidale, 2351, New South Wales, Australia
2 Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, 7005, Tasmania, Australia

Background
A multi-sensor system was developed to monitor short-term carbonate variability in the laboratory and field. The system combines a saturation state (Ω) sensor with carbonate and pH sensors to measure real-time changes in carbonate chemistry.

Methods
The Ω probe detects real-time dissolution and precipitation of calcium carbonate. For example, thin films of CaCO3 with known morphology and thickness can be deposited on the Ω sensor through chemically-controlled deposition. With a sub-second response time, the sensor can then be used to study real-time dissolution under a range of environmental conditions. To complement these measurements, the Ω sensor was combined with a range of seawater sensors we previously developed for ocean acidification studies. To measure carbonate, solid-contact fabrication techniques were used to produce carbonate ion-selective electrodes. The same fabrication techniques were used to produce hydrogen ion-selective electrodes and reference electrodes. The carbonate, hydrogen, and reference electrodes were produced on a single $5 disposable cartridge.

Findings
The ion-selective electrode cartridge and Ω sensor were incorporated into a single multi-sensor array. This device was tested in solutions of known DIC and AT and under a range of current and future conditions. The response of the multi-sensor array varied as expected to the range of solutions and both short-term and long-term variability.

Conclusions
To our knowledge, the multi-sensor array is the first sensor that directly measures Ω, pH, and carbonate. When deployed in the laboratory or field, the device can be used for real-time identification of under-saturation events.

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