Bridging the OA Data Management Workflow Gap

Eugene F. Burger1, Kevin M. O’Brien2, Karl M. Smith2, Ansley Manke1, Roland Schweitzer3

1 NOAA/PMEL, Seattle, WA, 98112 USA
2 University Washington, Seattle, WA, 98112 USA
3 WeatherTop Consulting, Bryan, TX, 77801 USA

Effective use of data collected in support of Ocean Acidification research for analysis and synthesis product generation, it is desirable that the data are quality controlled, documented, and accessible by the applications scientists prefer to use. The processing requirements, along with increases in data volume now require a significant effort by OA scientists. Second level data processing and quality control is time-consuming, and reduces the resources available to scientists to perform their research. National data directives now require our scientific data to be documented, publically available and archived in two years or less, further adding to the scientists’ data management burden. Although procedures exist to submit data to archival centers, it is the data-workflow gap between initial data processing, known as level one processing, and data archival that has not been addressed for a significant amount of OA data.

We propose tools and processes that will streamline OA data processing and quality control. This vision suggests a solution that relies on a combination extending existing development and new development on tools that will allow users to span this data workflow gap; to streamline the processing, quality control, and archive submission of biogeochemical OA data and metadata. Workflow established by this software will reduce the data management burden for scientists while also creating data in interchangeable standards-based formats that promote easier use of the high-value data. Time savings gained by this streamlined data processing will also allow scientists to meet their obligations for data archival. This poster will present this vision and highlight the existing applications and tools, built for the SOCAT effort, which, if extended, can meet these OA data management requirements at a much-reduced development cost.

64. Carbonate system parameters monitoring in coastal waters of Chile

Rodrigo Torres (1,2)*, Patricio Manriquez (3), Emilio Alarcon (1,4), Jose Luis Iriarte (2,4,5), Maximiliano Vergara (6), Silvia Murcia (7), Ernesto Davis (8)

1 Centro de Investigación en Ecosistemas de la Patagonia (CIEP), Coyhaique, 5951822, Chile.
2 Centro de Investigación: Dinámica de Ecosistemas Marinos de Altas Latitudes (IDEAL), Valdivia, Chile.
3 Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas (CEAZA), Coquimbo, Chile.
4 Universidad Austral de Chile, 5501558, Puerto Montt, Chile.
5 Centro de Investigación COPAS, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile.
6 Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias de la Acuicultura, Universidad Austral de Chile, 5501558, Puerto Montt, Chile.
7 Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile.
8 Fundación CEQUA, Punta Arenas, Chile.

Background
The carbonate system variability plays a role determining the exposure of marine organisms to high CO2 stressors (low pH, carbonate under-saturation). Here we show spatial and temporal the carbonate system variability along the coast of Chile.

Methods
Time Series: Surface seawater pH and total alkalinity were measure in the intertidal zone, two or three times per week during a period of one or two years at the coast of Chile (at 30°S, 40°S and 42°S). Stations located at 30°S and 40°S correspond to the coastal upwelling system of Chile, and the station at 42°S correspond to Northern Patagonian Archipelago.
Surveys: Two decades of carbonate system data from Antofagasta (23°S) to Cape Horn (56°S) were revised, including data collected from the new carbonate system monitoring program on opportunity ships (Cruceros Australis S.A.).

Findings
Surface waters pH range in upwelling areas and inner fjord water ranged from 7.7 to 8.4 pH units and 7.7 to 8.5 pH units, respectively. However the intra annual variability of those coastal ecosystems was substantially different. While most of the variability of pH and carbonate saturation state were associated to 1-2 weeks of upwelling evens in exposed shore of central Chile (42°S), the variability of pH and carbonate saturation state at inner waters of Northern Patagonia was mainly associated to the Summer-Winter annual cycle. While upwelling of pCO2 super-saturated waters lowers surface water omega in central and northern Chile, freshening of the coastal ocean in Patagonian Archipelago fjord reduce Omega in surface waters even in CO2 equilibrated waters.

Conclusions
Similar ranges of pH along the coast of Chile but different variability patters, highlight that variability (e.g. intra-annual variability) should be consider in the perturbation experiment design to assess the role of “exposure” of marine organism to high CO2 levels.

62. Calcium Carbonate Saturation States and pH in Orphan Knoll Region; a Seamount Where the North Atlantic Subpolar and Subtropical Gyres Meet

Kumiko Azetsu-Scott

Orphan Knoll is a bathymetric feature located 550 km northeast of Newfoundland, Canada, close to the area of interaction and mixing of subtropical waters transported by the North Atlantic Current and fresh and cool waters of polar and sub-polar origin. Orphan Knoll is also situated at the exit pathway of the Labrador Sea Water. It occupies an area about 75 km by 190 km, rising to a depth of 1800 m. Near-bottom current measurements provide evidence for anti-cyclonic circulation around the knoll. The Orphan Basin-Orphan Knoll region is biologically rich and provides a productive benthic habitat for a complex diversity of organisms that include deep sea corals and sponges.

Dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity were measured to evaluate calcium carbon saturation states and pH along two sections; one section extends from the north end of Orphan Knoll, across Orphan Basin to Newfoundland Shelf and one perpendicular to it. Aragonite saturation states at the plateau of Orphan Knoll were less than 1.2 with the average and standard deviation of 1.12 and 0.04, respectively, whereas the flanks deeper than 2100 m were undersaturated. Calcite saturation states were >1 throughout. A slight shoaling of saturation horizons from north to south and also from west to east, was observed. This trend corresponds to water mass structure around the topography. The average and standard deviation of pHtotal on the plateau of Orphan Knoll were 7.894 and 0.018, respectively. However, saturation states and pHtotal were lower at equivalent depths along the Newfoundland Slope caused by direct outflow from the Labrador Sea. Due to the observed low aragonite saturation and pHtotal on the plateau and flanks of Orphan Knoll, it is important to monitor the response of the benthic community to future changes in marine carbonate chemistry.

60. Biogeochemical changes in the Southern Ocean, South of Tasmania

Paula C. Pardo (1), Bronte Tilbrook (1,2)

1 Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.
2 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Oceans and Atmosphere, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.

The Southern Ocean is a region undergoing significant changes in seawater carbonate chemistry with potential to disrupt marine ecosystems. We used data from 8 repeats of the GO-SHIPS SR3 hydrographic section between Tasmania and Antarctica to characterise the evolution of biogeochemical properties in the region. The sections were completed between 1991 and 2011 in all seasons, and cover one of the most frequent repeat sections occupied in the Southern Ocean. An optimum multi-parametric analysis was use to define the major subsurface water mass distributions. The analysis allows us to determine how CO2 system and other biogeochemical properties are changing, including the pH and anthropogenic CO2 content. Key features like the influence of High Salinity Shelf Water that cascades down the continental slope and mixes with deeper waters to produce Antarctic Bottom Water are resolved. We will discuss the observed changes in the major water masses, distinguishing between the natural variability and the possible effects of climate change and relating them to the dynamics in the region.

59. Anthropogenic carbon distribution and ocean acidification state in the Patagonian shelf break region

Iole B. M. Orselli (1)*, Rodrigo Kerr (1), Rosane G. Ito (2), Virgínia M. Tavano (1,3) and Carlos A. E. Garcia (1)

1 Laboratório de Estudos dos Oceanos e Clima, Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Av. Itália km 8, Rio Grande, 96203-900, RS, Brazil.
2 Instituto Oceanográfico, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Praça do Oceanográfico 191, São Paulo, 05508-120, SP, Brazil.
3 Laboratório de Fitoplâncton e Micro-organismos Marinhos, Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Av. Itália km 8, Rio Grande, 96203-900, RS, Brazil.

Background
Oceans are known to play an important role in absorption of CO2 released in the atmosphere. Motivated by the increasing emissions by human activity, reaching a record value since 1750, many studies have been conducted to understand and quantify the anthropogenic carbon (Cant) absorption, distribution and effects in the oceans.

Methods:
Cant concentration was determined through both TrOCA and CT0 methods in the Patagonian shelf break (36°S-50°S), from hydrographic and carbonate data sampled during two consecutive spring cruises (2007 and 2008).

Findings
Results show Cant absorption in the entire water column, with low values in the deeper region of the northern study area, and no Cant above 1000 m (by TrOCA). Higher Cant values were observed near Río de La Plata mouth (TrOCA), while higher values for CT0 were found south of 40°S. Cant average values were (± methods precision) of 67.59 ± 3.5 mol kg-1 and 89.30 ± 1.3 mol kg-1 for TrOCA and CT0, respectively. Using Cant results, the state of oceanic acidification (pH) was distinctly estimated from both methods, with average values (± standard deviation) of –0.179 ± 0.168 and –0.173 ± 0.052 for TrOCA and CT0, respectively, indicating an annual pH reduction of –0.001 yr-1 since 1750. Calcite and aragonite saturation levels are not yet at a risk position, although may be affected by Cant absorption and ocean acidification (except for aragonite in depth levels: 1060 m at 47.4°S/59.5°W, 1500 m at 38.4°S/53.5°W and 2013 m at 38.4°S/53°W).

Conclusions
The Patagonian shelf break, which is considered one of the strongest CO2 sinking region in the World Ocean, seems to be an important area for Cant absorption, and the results showed here shed some new light on knowledge of the CO2 system behaviour in the area.

58. Li/Mg and Boron Isotopes in Antarctic Corals as Temperature and pH Proxies of Southern Ocean Water Masses

Paolo Montagna (1)*, Malcolm McCulloch (2), Julie Trotter (3), Vincenzo Ricca (1), Marco Taviani (1)

1 Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, 40129 Bologna, Italy
2 School of Earth and Environment, UWA Oceans Institute and ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA, 6009, Australia
3 School of Earth and Environment and UWA Oceans Institute, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA, 6009, Australia

Background
Attempts to decipher the role of the Southern Ocean in modulating past-climate has been particularly difficult due to the paucity of calcium carbonate-precipitating organisms, such as foraminifera, which are commonly used as paleoclimate archives in other oceans. Waters south of the Polar Front become undersaturated with respect to aragonite and calcite, strongly limiting carbonate accumulation and preservation. Cold-water corals are one of the few calcifying organisms that can cope with this corrosive environment, so are potential candidates for reconstructing temperature and pH records at high resolution (annual) over centennial timescales.

Methods
Trace elements and boron isotopes were measured in four specimens of the deep-sea coral Flabellum, retrieved live from the Ross Sea and offshore Bouvet Island at depths ranging between 390 and 760m. The specimens were sub-sampled along the growth axis and analysed using both quadrupole and MC-ICPMS methods.

Findings
The temperature-sensitive elements (Li/Mg and Sr/Ca) and the boron isotope (11B) pH proxy show a consistent pattern between different transects within each specimen, with excellent reproducibility, suggesting minimal influence from ‘vital effects’. Both the Li/Mg-derived temperatures and the 11B-derived pH of the younger portion of the corals are consistent with in-situ instrumental values. Importantly, these corals record a general trend of decreasing pH over the past few decades, as well as both warming and cooling trends which depend on the ambient water masses (High Salinity Shelf Water vs. Circumpolar Deep Water).

Conclusions
Specific geochemical signals encoded in the aragonite skeleton of the Antarctic corals are shown to be robust proxies for the physical and chemical properties of the water masses in which the corals grew. In particular, the Li/Mg and boron isotopic composition of the coral Flabellum vary with temperature and pH respectively, providing a new tool to reconstruct the variability of these key parameters in deep water environments.

56. Modelling the role of sea ice biogeochemistry on polar oceans’ acidification

Sébastien Moreau (1)*, Martin Vancoppenolle (2), Hugues Goosse (1), Jean-Louis Tison (3), Andrew Lenton (4), Peter G. Strutton (5), Bruno Delille (6)

1 Georges Lemaître Centre for Earth and Climate Research, Earth and Life Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-La-Neuve, Belgium.
2 Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Paris 6, LOCEAN-IPSL, CNRS, France
3 Laboratoire de Glaciologie, Faculté des Sciences, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 50 Avenue F.D. Roosevelt, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium
4 CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Hobart, Australia
5 Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania

6 Unité d’océanographie chimique, MARE, Université de Liège, Belgium

Sea ice plays a significant role on the biogeochemistry of polar oceans. Under a climate change, the internal structure (e.g., temperature, brine volume) and biogeochemistry of sea ice as well as its overall cover are projected to change. How these changes may impact rates of ocean acidification in polar oceans remains an important question. To investigate this, we used a halo-thermodynamic sea ice model coupled to sea ice biogeochemistry (i.e., biological activity, multi-phase CO2 dynamics and ice-atmosphere CO2 fluxes). We used this model to understand the role of 1) sea ice and 2) biogeochemistry on polar oceans’ acidification. Our preliminary results show that the desalinisation of sea ice has an unexpected outcome on polar oceans. During the ice growth phase, sea ice releases Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC), which increases oceanic pCO2, thereby decreasing the pH. However, because sea ice also releases salts during its growth, Ω calcite and Ω aragonite under sea ice increase. This is a strong decoupling between pH and Ω calcite and Ω aragonite that compensates for the winter decreases of Ω calcite and Ω aragonite. In contrast, during ice melt, the dilution of surface waters decreases DIC, Ω calcite and Ω aragonite thereby increasing the pH. It is at this time of the year, according to our sensitivity experiments, that biological activity at the base of sea ice will have the greatest potential to affect polar oceans rate of ocean acidification.

69. Winter-to-spring evolution of Arctic Ocean acidification state in under-ice water and effect of sea-ice dynamics during N-ICE 2015 ice drift project

Agneta Fransson (1)*, Melissa Chierici (2), Mats Granskog (1), Daiki Nomura (3), Philipp Assmy (1), Paul Dodd (1), Anja Rösel (1), Anna Silyakova (4), Harald Steen (1)

1 Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø, Troms, 9296, Norway
2 Institute of Marine Research, Tromsø, Troms, 9294, Norway
3 Hokkaido University, Hakodate, Japan
4 Centre for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Environment and Climate (CAGE), The Arctic University of Tromsø, Norway

Background
Ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean surface waters is affected by physical and biological processes such as sea-ice processes, freshwater supply, vertical mixing, gas fluxes, primary production and bacterial activity (Chierici et al., 2011; Fransson et al., 2013). However, there are few winter-to-spring investigations of the effect of sea-ice dynamics such as thin ice formation after opening of leads and brine rejection on the carbonate system and ocean acidification (OA) state in the underlying water. During the N-ICE 2015 Arctic Ocean drift study north of Svalbard (latitude 80° to 83°N, longitude 8°E to 28°E) onboard RV Lance, we gained unique data from winter to spring (January to June 2015).

Methods
We collected winter and spring data by sampling different types of sea ice, brine, and seawater. From all samples, we measured total inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (AT), nutrient concentrations (nitrate, phosphate, silicic acid), salinity and temperature. We calculated carbonate ion concentrations, calcium carbonate saturation state of aragonite and calcite (ΩAr and ΩCa), pH and pCO2 in the water column to investigate the seasonal evolution of sea-ice processes and effects on the carbonate system and OA state.

Findings
From winter (January-April) to spring (May-June), the carbonate system (e.g. DIC, pCO2, ΩAr, ΩCa), nutrients and salinity changed in the upper 100 meters due to changes in physical and biological processes and southward drift from Arctic water to Atlantic water. Vertical mixing, brine rejection, meltwater and primary production influenced the variability of the carbonate system and OA state in the mixed layer during the winter-to-summer season. Spring bloom in May-June caused nutrient uptakes, decreased DIC and increased pH. The calculated partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the upper 100 m showed undersaturation in relation to the atmospheric CO2 level (~400 µatm) throughout the winter and spring.

Conclusions
It was evident that the several processes affected the carbonate system and OA state in the upper 100 m. Although we drifted through both Arctic water and Atlantic water (with different carbonate system composition) and CO2-rich brine was rejected from the ice, the surface-water pCO2 was undersaturated throughout the winter and spring relative to the atmospheric CO2 level. This indicates that during break-up of ice and ice melt there is a potential for uptake of atmospheric CO2. However, we need more investigations to understand the seasonal drivers of the air-sea CO2 fluxes and changes in Ω, in a changing climate.

68. The State of Ocean Acidification in a Newfoundland Fjord

Wartman, Melissa (1)*, Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko (2), Childs, Darlene (2), Hooper, Robert (3)

1 School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, 3800, Australia

2 Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada

3 Biology Department, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John’s, Newfoundland, Canada

Background
Ocean acidification is a global phenomenon that exerts threats to vital coastal ecosystems. The state of ocean acidification in a pristine fjord was investigated by assessing the calcium carbonate saturation state with respect to calcite (Ωcal) and aragonite (Ωarg) and pHtotal in Bonne Bay, Newfoundland. Bonne Bay is comprised of two distinct basin (East and South Arm) connected to the Gulf of St. Lawrence (GSL).

Methods

CTD casts were completed in both basins and water samples were collected and analyzed for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), and pH, from April 28, 2012 to May 04, 2012.

Findings

Estuarine circulation was observed in Bonne Bay, with a fresher surface (<5m) layer overlying saline oceanic waters. Two distinct water masses were observed at depth in Bonne Bay: East Arm bottom waters (T= 0.10 to 0.75oC, S=31.0-31.5 psu) and South Arm bottom waters (T= 0.75 to 1.25oC, S= 31.7-32.4 psu). The average pHtotal in Bonne Bay was 8.031 ± 0.079, with the lowest pH (7.013) observed in the surface waters in both basins near freshwater input from local rivers and brooks. The average Ωarg in Bonne Bay was 1.16 ± 0.33 in the East Arm with a saturation horizon (where Ωarg =1) at 125m. In contrast, the average Ωarg in the South Arm was 1.37 ± 0.19 with no area of under saturation was observed.

Conclusions
Temporarily, more frequent flushing of the East Arm bottoms waters could increase the pH, Ωarg, and Ωcal, creating a more suitable habitat for calcifying organisms. However, as the outside waters in the Gulf of St. Lawrence become more acidic due to ocean acidification, these waters that flush the fjord bottom waters will soon be more acidic than the waters they would replace. This is the first study to investigate the chemical properties in Bonne Bay and provides baseline data of the saturation states and pH for the waters.

66. Modeling Effects of Bicarbonate Release on Carbonate Chemistry of the North Sea

Julia Kirchner (1)*, Hans-Jürgen Brumsack (1), Bernhard Schnetger (1), Jörg-Olav Wolff (1), Karsten Lettmann (1)

1 Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Sea (ICBM), University of Oldenburg, Germany

Background
Rising CO2-emissions accompanying the industrial revolution are presumably responsible for climate change and ocean acidification. Several methods have been developed to capture CO2 from effluents and reduce its emission. Among these a promising approach that mimics natural limestone weathering. CO2 in effluent gas streams reacts with calcium carbonate in a limestone suspension. The resulting bicarbonate-rich solution can be released into natural systems. In comparison to classical carbon capture and storage (CCS) methods this artificial limestone weathering is cheaper and does not depend on using toxic chemical compounds. Additionally there is no need for the controversially discussed storage of CO2 underground.

Methods
The unstructured grid finite volume community ocean model (FVCOM) was combined with a chemical submodul (mocsy 2.0) to model the hydrodynamic circulation and the carbonate system within the North Sea. With this tool we can predict the development of the continental-shelf carbonate system following external disturbances, e.g. the introduction of bicarbonate-rich waters.

Conclusions
The reduction of CO2-emissiosn becomes more important for European industries as the EU introduced a system that limits the amount of allowable CO2-emissions. Therefore large CO2 emitters are forced to find cheap methods for emission reduction, as they often cannot circumvent CO2-production. This method is especially of interest for power plants located close to the coast that are already using seawater for cooling purposes. Thus it is important to estimate the environmental effects if several coastal power plants will release high amounts of bicarbonate-rich waters into coastal waters, e.g. the North Sea.

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